Brief list of our Company services as surveyors / consultants:


FAQ (Frequently asked questions)


Why do we carry out a condition survey ?

To enable the managers to determine whether the ship conforms to acceptable standards.

When do we carry out a condition survey ?

Condition surveys are carried out for the following reasons:

a. When ships over 10 yrs old are entered in the club, this can be either a pre-entry or a post entry condition survey;

b. If after a visit by a club inspector ,the inspector feels that the ship does not conform to the Clubs standards;

c. Following a claim which could possibly have occurred due to a lapse in on board maintenance/management;

d. If information is received from a third party eg PSC that the ship is below Club standard;

e. If the ship changes classification societies, usually from an IACS to a non IACS society. f. If after a lengthy period of lay up (6 months or more) a ship is re-activated.


In most contracts of carriage, the shipowners’ responsibilities begin at the time of loading and it is therefore important to inspect the cargo at this stage. Pre-shipment inspection of cargo is intended to determine and document the condition of the cargo at this time. This inspection is commonly referred to as the pre-loading survey. This survey can be carried out by the ship’s master and officers, owners’ representatives, or surveyors instructed by the owners depending on the trade and nature of the cargo. It is at this time that decisions have to be made, if the cargo is not as described in the shipping documentation, whether to reject the cargo or accept the cargo and adequately describe any differences on the mates’ receipts and bills of lading. Early notification of any deficiencies to the shippers is desirable together with owner’s intentions on rejection of the cargo or clausing the mate’s receipts and bills of lading. This notification can be given direct to the shippers but is more commonly given to the agents, stevedores or charterers, depending on the owners’ contractual relations.


Surveyors conduct Draft Surveys onboard vessels and barges to calculate the amount of bulk cargo loaded or discharged. These surveys may be used for Bill of Lading purposes or for verification of shore scale weights. A Draft Survey includes all calculations used in determining the cargo figure including starting and finishing drafts, displacements, and consumables.


a) Cargo Weights may be reported in metric tons, long tons, short tons, kilograms, or pounds;

b) Weight Certificate can be provided at the clients request;

c) A stowage plan can be provided at the clients request;

d) The Draft Survey may be reported on our form, or in the standard UN/ILO/ECE Draft Survey format;

e) Deadweight Surveys can be conducted for purposes of cargo calculation at the completion of loading but accuracy will be dependent on the vessel’s reported lightweight constant.


Through close cooperation with shipyards, Marine Surveys and Services is able to offer ship owners and ship managers an in-depth supervision and project management services:

a) On-site supervision;
b) Compilation, evaluation and review of contract specifications;
c) Preparation of specifications;
d) Handling and procurement of spare parts;
e) Consultancy.

By maintaining and independent and personal approach, we are able to offer the client complete control of the whole process ensuring cost savings and greater efficiency.


This survey is usually conducted:

a) To seal or unseal all hold accesses and to issue related certificates;
b) To inspect & check the convenience of the lashing materials for the cargo & transportation means;
c) To monitor lashing/securing operations and give advice for the proper lashing/securing of the cargo;
d) To issue lashing approval certificate.


Before loading cargo holds must be examined for potential defects such as rust scale, insect infestation, oil sludge and water. Vessel’s cargo compartments must be substantially clean, dry, and ready to receive certain cargo before the loading can begin. Practically all charter parties have provisions for vessel inspection before/during loading. After hold cleanliness is approved by our surveyor cleanliness certificate is issued.


We survey a wide range of cargo by sea, air and road – including general dry cargo, food stuffs (fresh, chilled and frozen), dangerous goods, liquid products, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, machinery and bulk grain/minerals, damage of which was attributable not only to transportation accidents but also to natural disaster, earthquake, flood, typhoon and the like. We ascertain the nature, extent and causes of the damage, help to mitigate the loss, and issue timely and coherent survey reports to applicants.


On-Hire Surveys / Off-Hire Surveys of vessels or marine structures undertaken either before the vessel or structure is delivered into a charter, or redelivered from a charter. The survey report should include a detailed description of a vessel’s cargo spaces/deck areas structural condition, cargo space cleanliness, bunkers on board, listing of the vessel’s statutory certificates, portable securing equipment, etc.

When discrepancies differences arise in a bunker delivery operation, the experience of the Surveyor should be able to find the error, if any, or to give out the right figures for third party agreement.

The purpose of these On-Hire Surveys / Off-Hire Surveys is principally to determine the extent of damage, other than fair wear and tear, which may have occurred to the ship between two dates, usually those of the commencement and termination of charter. Whilst the determination of damage is the principle purpose of the two requisite reports, one being at the “on hire” survey and the other at the “off hire” survey, there are often three other requirements. These are generally:

a) The checking of documents and certificates

b) The establishment of quantities of fuel and stores on board

c) Sometimes the establishment of the cleanliness of the cargo spaces

Visual inspection conducted at the time of delivery or re-delivery of a vessel to/from a time charter.

On-Hire Surveys / Off-Hire Surveys is very important for a client when hiring a vessel to limit their liability, by ensuring they have the correct information on the condition of the vessel and work required in respect of the Charter Party. Hence it is in the interest of a Client to get an independent survey carried out on their behalf which will then be used as evidence for their liabilities for the Charter period.

When attend to check the condition of the vessel when it is chartered from or redelivered back to the owner which usually includes in part the structure, document and bunker, Vessel survey to get a general impression by inspecting selected areas:

a) Accommodation;
b) Passenger areas;
c) Safety equipment;
d) Cargo areas;
e) Machinery spaces etc.;
f) Planned Maintenance System for outstanding items;
g) Sample of any prearranged open spaces (tanks etc.);
h) Certification and Classification records to be inspected;
i) Brief interviews with some of the crew members.

The Survey

1. On or Off Hire Surveys are conducted to the extent requested by the client. If the client has not detailed the specifics of the survey, Attachment A – On/Off Hire Survey Checklist furnished as part of this instruction is to be used as a general guide for what is to be surveyed and recorded.

2. The information required is generally the same for On or Off Hire so a comparison can be made prior to and after hiring a vessel out. Therefore, Attachment A – On/Off Hire Survey Checklist can to be used as a guide for either an On or Off Hire Survey.

3. Spares, loose items and consumable stores, to the extent required by client, are to be surveyed and recorded.

4. During the course of an Off-Hire survey, the On-Hire survey report is to be referred to in order to determine any differences in condition (normal wear and tear excepted).

5. The Off-Hire survey shall be conducted subject to the same (or simulated) limitations encountered during the conduct of the On-Hire survey, as set forth in the On-Hire survey report.


The LOH survey is in certain respects a more “delicate” survey than the H&M Survey, and it will in many casualties be a challenge also for an experienced Surveyor. There are several reasons for this. Amongst the most obvious are:

Conflict of interest. The LOH Surveyors goal, in addition to determine and collecting facts and evidence, is to ensure that the casualty repair is expedited as fast and efficient as possible in order to mitigate Underwriters loss. The cost of the repair is, in principle, not the LOH Underwriters concern. Unless the vessel has the same Claims Leader on both H&M and LOH, the LOH Surveyor will most likely meet a H&M Surveyor who, in principle, want the repair to be carried out as economical as possible with no concern for the time spent.

Sometimes, the LOH Underwriters are not informed about the casualty before the deductible days are about to be exhausted. When this is the case, it can be very difficult for the appointed Surveyor to “wind-up” the case when he attend the vessel several weeks after the repair work commenced.


When conducting a LOH Survey, the content of the survey and the survey report are in many ways similar to the H&M Survey and reporting. Particulars of the vessel, representatives, narrative, cause consideration, cost of repair etc. should be addressed. However, in addition, following material facts and documents are of utmost importance for a successful LOH Survey and report:

Vessels schedule (to be reported in dates, days, hours and minutes):

a) Last port of call, next port of call. Including dates and time where applicable. Arrival and departure dates and times;
b)Discharging and loading commencement and completion, as well as commencement/completion for tank cleaning, gas freeing/ventilation, slop disposal of cargo tanks. Including dates and times;
c) Date/time for preparation of repair specification and obtaining offers;
d) Docking and undocking. Dates and time;
e) Repairs commenced and completed. Dates and times for each casualty.

Cost and time for repair:

a) Cost and time for temporary repairs, and estimated required time if carried out separately;
b) Reason(s) for carrying out temporary repairs and estimate of cost/time savings;
c) Cost and time for permanent repairs, and estimated required time if carried out separately;
d) Cost and time for work not concerning average, and estimated required time if carried out separately.

Work not concerning average:

All work not concerning average should be identified and described in the report. It should be mentioned if the work necessitated drydock. The Surveyor should also advise details of the work necessary to fulfil classification requirements (irrespective of whether it is due or not);
with regards to seaworthiness/ “cargoworthiness” of the vessel, and how long time such work would have required if carried out separately.

Extra expenses incurred to reduce delay:

Expenses incurred to reduce delay should be identified and reported. Overtime work, method of freight of spares and higher spare part prices in order to reduce delivery times are the most common;

For each casualty the saved time due to the extra expenses incurred should also be reported;

Broken down to saved time in drydock with associated savings in drydock dues, wharfage with associated savings in wharfage costs and total saved time.


a) Deck and engine log books, or extracts thereof;
b) Sea protest or Maritime Declaration, if made;
c) Damage reports by Master/Officers/Engineers as relevant;
d) Reports by Class, Owners Superintendent, diver, contractors as relevant;
e) Recent Class and Statutory survey status with conditions upon commencement of repairs;
f) Specification and tenders, where taken;
g) Copy of the H&M Survey reporting (usually not obtainable by LOH Surveyor, but good communication with H&M Surveyor will always be an advantage).


Policy conditions shall not be discussed with Owners representative. If you have questions regarding the LOH Survey, reporting or conditions, please do not hesitate to contact a claims handle. In cases were the Surveyor are of the opinion that the repair is delayed, with or without Owners approval, the LOH claims handler to be contacted as soon as possible.

If in doubt on anything mentioned above, please do not hesitate to contact the claims handler who appointed you as Loss of Hire Surveyor.


We ensure the inspection of trailers and containers during loading and discharging operations. Relative monitoring and damage reports are issued in order to safeguard owners and/or shippers interests.


Cargo is loaded onto a ship when she is floating steadily in the water, upright, or with a practical trim astern. When the ship sails out to sea, it encounters external forces which result in to six forms of motions acting on the ship. These motions are a threat especially for those ships which require cargo lashing and securing it on the open deck (Container ships).

If the storage of cargo is not secure enough then there is no escape from the behavior of the seas and the wind once they show their rage. This in result takes a toll on the loaded cargo, causing damage to other cargo in the vicinity or to the vessel’s structures and fittings and even throwing the cargo overboard. Improper cargo lashing and failure to adhere to the procedures required for cargo stowage on ships is dangerous to property, life and environment at sea.

To avoid getting into situations like these the responsible personnel on board should be competent enough to plan and uphold safe carriage of the cargo at all times. This is done by proper planning of container lashing and securing.


The Company and Undersigned handles all incidents involving damage to, or loss of, insured vessels as well as property claims made by or pursued against third parties.

This section provides a general guide to steps you should take in the event of a potential Hull & Machinery claim on your policy and also how we aim to respond. A potential claim could involve damage to your own vessel or to third party property. As every incident is slightly different, this is not intended to be an all-inclusive list and if you are in any doubt then please contact your Broker.

Following an incident:

Without putting yourself or your crew in danger, you should take reasonable steps to make your vessel safe in order to prevent further damage to it or to other property. Costs incurred for taking such measures should be recoverable under your Policy should a claim result.

In many cases, the cost of a towage from sea to a safe port is claimable irrespective of the cause of the problem leading to the tow.

It is important that we are notified as soon as possible so that we can:

a) Offer immediate advice and assistance;
b) If necessary, arrange for any damage to be inspected prior to repairs commencing;
c) Arrange to obtain statements from any relevant witnesses;
d) Advise on the appointment of salvors if the vessel is still in distress.

We will send you a Claim Form to be completed as fully as possible, signed and returned to us. You can find a PDF version of the Claim Form below that can be printed, completed and returned in the normal manner. It is important that the Claim Form is completed as failure to do so could slow down the handling of your claim.

Our claims handlers will seek to gather all relevant documentation and information as soon as possible to enable us to deal with your claim promptly within the terms of your Policy.

We understand the financial and time pressures faced by our clients following an incident and we pride ourselves on providing a prompt and transparent claims service.